Potencial social y ambiental de la industria eólica para una transición energética en América Latina

  • Rubén Manuel Zepeda Cancino
  • Verónica Vázquez García Colegio de Postgraduados
Palabras clave: cambio climático; energía renovable; economía baja en carbono; huella de carbono; seguridad energética; impactos socioambientales.

Resumen

Brasil, México y Uruguay han adoptado la energía eólica como estrategia para combatir el cambio climático. Sin embargo, sus experiencias son distintas y se encuentran poco documentadas. Este artículo analiza las ventajas y desventajas de la industria eólica con miras a su futura expansión en América Latina. La metodología consiste en sistematizar y analizar la bibliografía existente en castellano, portugués e inglés. Se identificaron cuatro ventajas de la energía eólica (baja huella de carbono, reducidos costos de producción, creación de empleos e ingresos por renta de tierras) y cinco desventajas (pérdida de cobertura forestal, impacto en aves y fuentes de agua, contaminación por derrames de aceite y desechos y afectaciones a la salud).  Los desafíos de política pública para la región son: fomentar la investigación sobre los daños socioambientales de la energía eólica y diseñar herramientas para mitigarlos; desarrollar la cadena completa de suministros de manufactura e insumos mediante la innovación tecnológica; repartir equitativamente los beneficios de la industria eólica entre la población local y priorizar la necesidad pública de electricidad, por encima de intereses privados. Mientras estos desafíos no sean asumidos plenamente, los proyectos eólicos seguirán formando parte de una estructura hegemónica que se autoproclama como la solución al cambio climático, pero que sigue manteniendo una lógica extractivista que no beneficia a la población.  

Abstract

Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have adopted wind energy as a means to fight climate change. However, their experiences are different and insufficiently documented. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the wind industry in light of its future expansion in Latin America. The methodology consists of the systematization and analysis of literature written in Spanish, Portuguese and English. Four advantages and five disadvantages were identified. The advantages are wind energy’s reduced carbon footprint, low production costs, the potential for job creation and income from land rentals, while the disadvantages are possible vegetation loss, impact on birds and water sources, oil and waste contamination and health damage. The challenges for public policy are: supporting research on the socioenvironmental impacts of the wind industry and designing tools for their mitigation; developing a full supply chain of materials through technological innovation; distributing the benefits of wind energy equally among the local population, and prioritizing public needs of electricity above the interest of the private sector. If these challenges are not fully met, wind energy projects will be part of a hegemonic structure that claims to solve the problems created by climate change, while in fact continuing to use an extractivist logic, incapable of benefitting people.

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Publicado
2021-09-30
Cómo citar
Zepeda Cancino, Rubén, y Verónica Vázquez García. 2021. Potencial Social Y Ambiental De La Industria Eólica Para Una Transición Energética En América Latina. Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana De Estudios Socioambientales, n.º 30 (septiembre), 66-85. https://doi.org/10.17141/letrasverdes.30.2021.4598.