Demografía y transformación territorial: medio siglo de cambio en la región amazónica de Ecuador/ Demography and territorial transformation: half a century of change in the Amazonian Region of Ecuador

  • Pablo Santiago Jarrín-V. Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam
  • Luis Tapia Carrillo Universidad de Guayaquil
  • Giannina Zamora Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales
Palabras clave: demografía, Demografía, deforestación, estrategia indígena, frontera agrícola, urbanización

Resumen

Una población numerosa puede favorecer el crecimiento económico (un bebé puede ser un futuro aportador de impuestos), generar oportunidades para la innovación tecnológica (un bebé puede ser un futuro genio e innovador) y dinamizar la economía (más consumidores y más costos compartidos). Pero esto solo puede ser posible si el tejido social y económico de una sociedad es el propicio. ¿Será el crecimiento poblacional amazónico en Ecuador lo suficientemente elevado para garantizar más pobreza y conflicto social a corto y largo plazo, o será un factor de desarrollo? La región amazónica posee la tasa más alta de natalidad en Ecuador. En 60 años, la población se ha multiplicado 16 veces. La ausencia de servicios básicos y educación promueve tasas de natalidad elevadas, especialmente en los indígenas. Existe evidencia de que el crecimiento poblacional (natalidad y migración) promueve la deforestación en la región amazónica. El presente ensayo es una síntesis del cambio demográfico y sus efectos sobre la deforestación, frontera agrícola, urbanización y las estrategias indígenas frente al cambio. Una población en rápido crecimiento puede contribuir a la economía y estabilidad social, solamente si se cumplen las condiciones necesarias de educación y oportunidades laborales. Estas últimas características particularmente ausentes de forma histórica para la región amazónica de Ecuador.

 

Abstract

A large population can promote economic growth (a baby could be a future tax payer), can generate new opportunities for technological innovation (a baby can be a future genius and innovator), and can contribute to a dynamic economy (more consumers and more shared costs). However, this is possible only if the social and economic conditions of a society are the necessarily required. Would the population growth in Amazonian Ecuador be sufficiently large as to guarantee more poverty and social conflict in the short and long term, or will it be a factor for development?. The Amazonian region has the highest birth rate in Ecuador. The population has grown 16 times over the last 60 years. The absence of basic services and education promotes high birth rates, especially on indigenous people. There is evidence that population growth (births and migration) promotes deforestation in the Amazonian region. The present essay is a synthesis of demographic change and its effects on deforestation, the agricultural frontier, urbanization and the indigenous strategies to confront this change. A population under rapid growth can contribute to the economy and social stability, only if the necessary conditions for education and available employment are met. These last characteristics have been particularly absent in the history of Amazonian Ecuador.

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Biografía del autor/a

Pablo Santiago Jarrín-V., Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam
Coordinador de Servicios para la Investigación de la Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam
Luis Tapia Carrillo, Universidad de Guayaquil
Doctor en Ciencia Política (Universidad Complutense-Madrid), Magister en Sociología del Desarrollo (ISDIBER-Madrid) y Magister en Planificación del Desarrollo Regional (Universidad Los Andes-Bogotá). Investigador sobre temas de desarrollo de la región amazónica. Autor de libros sobre el desarrollo territorial ecuatoriano
Giannina Zamora, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales

Ingeniera geógrafa. Estudiante de doctorado de Salud, Ambiente y Sociedad (UASB). Investigadora y docente invitada de varias universidades de postgrado (Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales).

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Publicado
2017-11-27
Cómo citar
Jarrín-V., Pablo, Luis Tapia Carrillo, y Giannina Zamora. 2017. Demografía Y Transformación Territorial: Medio Siglo De Cambio En La Región Amazónica De Ecuador/ Demography and Territorial Transformation: Half a Century of Change in the Amazonian Region of Ecuador. Eutopía, Revista De Desarrollo Económico Territorial, n.º 12 (noviembre), 81-100. https://doi.org/10.17141/eutopia.12.2017.2913.